|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 110-114
Public awareness and knowledge of dental implants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Mohammed Al-Rafee1, Heba Ismail Adam2, Turki Saad Alharbi3, Alanoud Abdelmohsen Almojel2
1 Director of Prosthodontics Post Graduate Program REU, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Dental Intern in REU, Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia
3 Dental Intern in Al-Qassim Private Collage, Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia
|Date of Web Publication||14-Sep-2018|
Department of Prosthodontics, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aims: The aim of this study is to explore the knowledge and information concerning dental implants as a substitute for missing teeth among general society in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, a standardized questionnaire of 17 questions was used to assess the public awareness of dental implant in Riyadh by assessing, awareness, knowledge, sources of information, and attitude toward dental implants. The questionnaires were distributed to the people in public places. A total of 747 patients were included in this survey.
Results: In this study, it was found that 56% of 747 participants are aware of dental implant as the option of replacement for missing teeth. About 48.9% knew the correct location of the dental implant in the mouth. About 85.5% stated that the main disadvantage is the cost. The main source of information from the dentist 34.4%, followed by friends 29.9%. The majority of the participants 78.3% believed only specialists could provide implant treatment.
Conclusion: This study concluded that there is reasonable awareness and knowledge about dental implant. However, it is limited to general information, and there is a need for more public awareness about dental implant.
Keywords: Awareness, knowledge, dental implants
|How to cite this article:|
Al-Rafee M, Adam HI, Alharbi TS, Almojel AA. Public awareness and knowledge of dental implants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Oral Sci 2018;5:110-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Al-Rafee M, Adam HI, Alharbi TS, Almojel AA. Public awareness and knowledge of dental implants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Oral Sci [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Aug 19];5:110-4. Available from: http://www.saudijos.org/text.asp?2018/5/2/110/241174
| Introduction|| |
The loss of at least one natural tooth can bring about inadequacy that can influence day-by-day living routines, for example, talking, eating, and meeting new people due to the humiliation that denture wearing can cause.
Prosthodontics forms a critical part in supplanting missing teeth and sustaining the oral capacities. In any case, there are usually no acknowledged principles about how to supplant missing teeth much of the time. Since singular inclinations form an imperative part. People with less edification and lower salaries tend to have poorer dental status due to poor economics.
Dental implant treatment has come to the center, because it gives good results in the long run in the rehabilitation of partially or totally edentulous patients.
Long-run clinical examinations have proven the usefulness of implant therapy.,,,,, Dental implants were initially utilized to treat partially or completely edentulous patients and are related to practical proficiency, steadiness, and enhanced denture maintenance and personal satisfaction.,,,,,
This led to general approval and recognition of dental implants inside the experienced dental society.
A few studies have revealed that dental implants are greatly acknowledged by dental patients.
The level of understanding of dental implants treatment changed. In a study by Zimmer et al. among 120 American patients, general perception, and acknowledgement of dental implants was observed to be high. A general enthusiastic demeanor toward dental implants was observed. They similarly mentioned that implant-supported restorations were more appealing esthetically than removable prosthesis and evaluated this as a huge benefit of implant dentistry.
Different reports from Finland and Australia have revealed that the level of understanding dental implant treatment techniques among a chosen group of patients was observed to be around 29% and 64%, respectively.,
A study report from Austria, revealed that the perception rate of dental implant procedure was 72%, and 42% of the individuals who were addressed said that they were not educated at all about dental implants, while only 4% of the individuals said they were well educated in regard to dental implants. The examination reasoned that the data about regular dentistry was merely insignificantly higher than that of implant dentistry.
Another examination among a chosen group of dental patients in Saudi Arabia detailed that 66.4% of patients knew about dental implants.
Sources of information about dental implants can be different. The fundamental origins of data are distinctive in numerous different countries.
In a few nations, media can form an integral part in the general dental education and add to an expanded level of knowledge about dental implants.
While different reports revealed that the primary origin of data about dental implants was the dental specialist, trailed by print media, and by companions and acquaintances.
This investigation was carried out to assess the information and knowledge of patients toward implant treatment as a choice for substitution of missing teeth in Saudi Arabia.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The Ethics Committee of Riyadh Elm University approved the study proposal (registration number FUGRP/2016/130). A cross sectional analytical study was conducted and done on 1000 participants. A convenience sample was selected in Riyadh Saudi Arabia, where patients were selected from public places. The study was conducted at August 15,2017–October 31, 2017.
In this descriptive cross-sectional study, a standardized questionnaire of 17 questions was used to assess the public awareness of dental implant in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Riyadh) by examining the knowledge and attitude toward dental implants, and the survey questionnaire was adapted from a previous study performed by Tepper et al. The questionnaires were distributed to the people in public places. A pilot test was conducted on 20 people to perform an initial assessment of the patient response to the survey. Both people who have refused to answer the questions and those who did not complete the questions were excluded from the study.
The final questionnaire comprised 17 questions to assess the patient response to the following categories:
- Dental history of patient
- Patient knowledge about dental implant
- Source of information about dental implant
- The patient expectation toward dental implant practices.
The questionnaire consisted of demographic data information, (sex, age, and the degree of education) in addition, to the survey questionnaire.
The study included all qualitative data, which were expressed in numbers and percentiles and presented in the form. All the variables of the study were statistically analyzed, and the P value was calculated. The statistical comparison of baseline parameters like, age, gender, education and nationality were performed for all questions in every segment of Questioner. Chi square test was applied at 95% Confidence Interval (CI) to compute inferential statistics. The data were analyzed using Statistical package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Version 21). In all the above tests, the P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant; P > 0.05 was taken to be statistically not significant; P < 0.01 was taken to be statistically highly significant and P < 0.001 as very highly significant.
| Results|| |
Of 1000 questionnaires distributed in Riyadh city, only 747 questionnaires were completed and accepted. The response rate was 92%. All of the patients were adult of age; the majority (447, 59.8%) were <30 years. Of the total group, 343 (45.9%) were male, and 404 (54.1%) were female. Most of them has Saudi nationality (723, 96.8%). In regard to the level of education, the majority of patients (426, 57%) had a bachelor degree [Table 1].
Dental history of subject
In this study, it was found that the majority of the participants (639, 85.5%) had a history of dental treatment, whereas only 81 (10.8%) had a history of dental implant therapy. It was found that 217 (29%) of the total had a relative with a history of dental implant therapy.
Subject information about dental implant
According to the results, the majority of the participants (545, 73%) did not prefer replacing their missing teeth with removable appliances. Most of the respondents (648, 86.7%) preferred replacing their teeth missing with fixed prostheses over removable prostheses, due to their superior function as stated by 325 respondents (43.5%), while 261 of them (34.9%) preferred fixed prostheses due to their superior esthetics [Figure 1].
When participants were asked about the options used for replacing missing teeth, 418 (56%) stated dental implants, while 239 (32%) stated crowns and bridges [Figure 2].
During the assessment of the general knowledge of the participants about the dental implant, they were asked about the proper location where the dental implant should be placed, almost half of the participants (365, 48.9%) knew the right answer about the proper placement of the dental implant. About 104 (13.9%) participants believe that the implant is placed in the gum, while 51 (6.8%) think that the dental implant is placed in the adjacent teeth. About one-third of participants had no idea where to fix the dental implant [Figure 3].
In regard to the question about the disadvantages of dental implant, significant number of participants (437, 85.5%) stated that the main disadvantage is the cost, followed by the need for surgery (176, 23.6%), while the long period of treatment is considered as a disadvantage among 84 (11.2%) of the participant [Figure 4].
The majority (291, 38.9%) believed that dental implants will last a lifetime, while 121 (16.2%) believed it could last for 20 years, while 150 (20.1%) mentioned that it could last up to 5 years [Figure 5].
Regarding the cause of dental implant failure, 171 (22.9%) blamed the dentist for dental implant failure, but 234 (31.1%) attributed the failure of the implant to poor oral hygiene [Figure 6].
Sources of information about dental implants
The main source of information for the participants about dental implant was from the dentist (257, 34.4%), followed by friends (223, 29.9%), then from social media (147, 19.7%).
The dentist should be the most reliable and valuable source of information according to the participants (567, 75.9%) [Figure 7].
|Figure 7: Sources and the preferred sources of information about dental implants|
Click here to view
The participants' attitude toward the dental implant practice
Almost half of our sample population (390, 52.2%) knew that their dentist provided implant as a treatment alternative, while the majority of the participants (585, 78.3%) perceived that only specialists can provide implant treatment, significant number of them (435, 58.3%) did not know if the dentist used the most advanced dental implant techniques.
| Discussion|| |
This present study provided information about public awareness of dental implants as a modality of treatment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
The participant's level of information about dental implants as a treatment option, in this study, was found to be 56%. Despite the increasing popularity of using the dental implants as a treatment option, this result shows lower levels of awareness compared to the result of studies done by Zimmer et al., Tepper et al., Berge and Esfahani, which reported a high level of awareness (77%), (72%), (70.1%), and (76.7%), respectively. In a previous study by Al-Johany et al., which was done in Riyadh Saudi Arabia, they found a higher level of information about dental implant (66.4%) compared to our findings. This difference could be attributed to the sample of the previous study as it was selected from patients visiting hospitals which are expected to know more about dental implant. However, the present study showed higher results than studies done in Turkey  and India, which were found to be 43.5% and 33.3%.
Despite the fact that 56% of the participants were aware about dental implants as a modality of treatment, 51.1% of the participants did not know the proper location of the dental implant, which is similar to the study by Tepper et al., Al-Johany et al., Pommer et al. reporting the percentage as (39%), (50.1%), (35%), and (47.4%), respectively.
It is worth mentioning that almost (38.9%) stated that dental implants will survive for a lifetime, which is similar to the study done by Tepper et al., Pommer et al., Esfahani and Moosaali, Ozçakır Tomruk et al., and Akagawa et al.
Regarding the constraints of the dental implant, the participants indicated that the high cost was found as the major factor (58.8%), followed by the need for surgery (23.6%), which is similar to other studies.,,,,,
The primary source of information about dental implant in this current study was the dentist (34.4%), followed by friends (29.9%) and social media (19.7%) and it is similar to the study of Pommer et al., Ozçakır Tomruk et al., India, Al-Johany et al. In Saudi Arabia, in the past studies found that the relatives and friends followed by the dentists were the main source of information about the dental implant. Zimmer et al., Berge  and Grogono, found that the media is the main source of information. The majority of the participants 81.1% showed high interest about dental implants which is similar to other studies conducted in Saudi by Kola et al. and Al-Johany et al. About 75.9% of the participants indicated that the dentists should be the main source of information, this maybe because the dentist is more reliable and trusted by the participant.
| Conclusion|| |
With the limitation of the study, it was concluded that reasonable, awareness, and knowledge about dental implants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was similar to the global picture. This awareness was limited to general information, and there is a need for more awareness about dental implants as they are becoming a more popular modality of treatment to replace missing teeth. Dentists should play a role in promoting community awareness about dental implants as they are more reliable.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Allen PF, McMillan AS, Walshaw D. A patient-based assessment of implant-stabilized and conventional complete dentures. J Prosthet Dent 2001;85:141-7.
Bhat AM, Prasad KD, Sharma D, Hegde R. Attitude toward desire for implant treatment in South Coastal Kranataka population: A shortterm epidemiological survey. Int J Oral Implantol Clin 2012;3:63-6.
Narby B, Kronstrom M, Soderfeltdt B. Changes in attitudes towards desire for implant treatment: A longitudinal study of a middle age and older Swedish population. Int J Prosthodont 2008;21:481-5.
Adell R, Lekholm U, Rockler B, Brånemark PI. A 15-year study of osseointegrated implants in the treatment of the edentulous jaw. Int J Oral Surg 1981;10:387-416.
Adell R, Eriksson B, Lekholm U, Brånemark PI, Jemt T. Long-term follow-up study of osseointegrated implants in the treatment of totally edentulous jaws. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1990;5:347-59.
Albrektsson T. A multicenter report on osseointegrated oral implants. J Prosthet Dent 1988;60:75-84.
Albrektsson T, Zarb G, Worthington P, Eriksson AR. The long-term efficacy of currently used dental implants: A review and proposed criteria of success. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1986;1:11-25.
Albrektsson T, Blomberg S, Brånemark A, Carlsson GE. Edentulousness – An oral handicap. Patient reactions to treatment with jawbone-anchored prostheses. J Oral Rehabil 1987;14:503-11.
Albrektsson T, Dahl E, Enbom L, Engevall S, Engquist B, Eriksson AR, et al.
Osseointegrated oral implants. A Swedish multicenter study of 8139 consecutively inserted nobelpharma implants. J Periodontol 1988;59:287-96.
Berge TI. Public awareness, information sources and evaluation of oral implant treatment in Norway. Clin Oral Implants Res 2000;11:401-8.
Grogono AL, Lancaster DM, Finger IM. Dental implants: A survey of patients' attitudes. J Prosthet Dent 1989;62:573-6.
Zimmer CM, Zimmer WM, Williams J, Liesener J. Public awareness and acceptance of dental implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1992;7:228-32.
Salonen MA. Assessment of states of dentures and interest in implant-retained prosthetic treatment in 55-year-old edentulous Finns. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1994;22:130-5.
Best HA. Awareness and needs of dental implants by patients in new South Wales. Aust Prosthodont J 1993;7:9-12.
Tepper G, Haas R, Mailath G, Teller C, Zechner W, Watzak G, et al.
Representative marketing-oriented study on implants in the Austrian population. I. Level of information, sources of information and need for patient information. Clin Oral Implants Res 2003;14:621-33.
Al-Johany S, Al Zoman HA, Al Juhaini M, Al Refeai M. Dental patients' awareness and knowledge in using dental implants as an option in replacing missing teeth: A survey in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Dent J 2010;22:183-8.
Mgbeokwere U, Okoye L, Ekwueme O. A survey of the knowledge of dental implants as a choice in treatment of edentulous jaws among health workers in government dental clinics in Enugu. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2011;1:91-5.
] [Full text]
Esfahani OF, Moosaali F. Awareness and knowledge of patients toward dental implants as an option in replacing missing teeth: A survey in Kerman, Iran. J Periodontal Implant Dent 2016;8:43-8.
Ozçakır Tomruk C, Ozkurt-Kayahan Z, Sençift K. Patients' knowledge and awareness of dental implants in a Turkish subpopulation. J Adv Prosthodont 2014;6:133-7.
Suprakash B, Ahammed AR, Thareja A, Kandaswamy R, Nilesh K, Bhondwe Mahajan S, et al.
Knowledge and attitude of patients toward dental implants as an option for replacement of missing teeth. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14:115-8.
Pommer B, Zechner W, Watzak G, Ulm C, Watzek G, Tepper G, et al.
Progress and trends in patients' mindset on dental implants. I: Level of information, sources of information and need for patient information. Clin Oral Implants Res 2011;22:223-9.
Akagawa Y, Rachi Y, Matsumoto T, Tsuru H. Attitudes of removable denture patients toward dental implants. J Prosthet Dent 1988;60:362-4.
Kola MZ, Alasqah MN, Alharbi B, Alonazi A, Alhedyan FS. Public awareness, information sources and evaluation of oral implant treatment in Alkharj town (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) – A survey based study. J Adv Med Dent Sci 2016;4:114-20.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]