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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 96-100

Diversity and clinical presentation of Candida species in human immunodeficiency virus patients with oral candidiasis

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, KLE Vishwanath Katti Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Arvind Shetti
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, KLE Vishwanath Katti Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi - 590 003, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sjos.SJOralSci_74_18

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Background: Change in the distribution profile of nonalbicans Candida species (spp.) can be an indication of immunosuppression or drug resistance to oral candidiasis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thus, it is essential to analyze the association of the profile of varied Candida spp. Objective: The study aimed to collect the baseline data of diversity in the Candida spp. in HIV patients with oral candidiasis and correlate it with clinical presentations. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 HIV patients with CD4 count<200 cells/μL were included in the study. A presumptive diagnosis of oral candidiasis was made, and different clinical forms of candidiasis were recorded. The oral swab samples collected from the patients were sent to the microbiological laboratory for culture. Different Candida spp. were isolated, and an association was analyzed with various variables, including clinical presentation, CD4 count, and duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART). A correlation between CD4 count and ART duration was also assessed. Results: Pseudomembranous candidiasis was the most (46.50%) prevalent type identified in HIV patients. Candida albicans was the most prevalent (68%) spp. in HIV patients. Clinical form of candidiasis was significantly associated with isolated spp. (P < 0.00001). CD4 counts (P < 0.001) and ART (P = 0.03) duration significantly differed among clinical forms of candidiasis. ART duration was significantly correlated with CD4 count (r = 0.18; P = 0.01). Conclusion: The study suggests the significance of various Candida spp. in the prediction of disease progression and immune suppression levels in HIV-infected oral candidiasis patients. Intensifying the concentration of nonalbicans spp. isolated in these studies predicts the change in immune status.

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