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  Most popular articles (Since December 09, 2013)

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Therapeutic management of dental fluorosis: A critical review of literature
Enosakhare S Akpata
January-June 2014, 1(1):3-13
DOI:10.4103/WKMP-0056.124179  
Dental fluorosis is a specific condition due to chronic ingestion of excessive fluoride during enamel formation. The cleavage and removal of enamel proteins are disturbed. Retention of the proteins and water results in varying degrees of subsurface porosities related to the severity of fluorosis. The porosities may attract extrinsic stains, causing enamel discoloration. Posteruptively, occlusal trauma may cause detachment of surface enamel weakened by the subsurface porosities. The therapeutic management options include bleaching, microabrasion, veneering and crowning. The bleaching agents break down the chromogens into smaller molecules, resulting in teeth with lighter and brighter shades. The microabrasion is aimed at removing the superficial microporous zone together with the entrapped extrinsic stains, while laminate veneers and crowns provide esthetic masking of the discolored fluorosed enamel. It is suggested that mild-to-moderate fluorosis be treated by microabrasion and bleaching, while severe fluorosis, with loss of some surface enamel, is managed by veneering and crowning, depending on the extent of surface enamel loss. Long-term clinical trials are needed to evaluate the appropriateness of the various management options for fluorosis of varying severity.
  20,060 2,019 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Role of faculty development programs in improving teaching and learning
Ashraf M. F. Kamel
July-December 2016, 3(2):61-68
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.188073  
Faculty development programs (FDPs) have proven to be successful for improving teaching skills in higher education. This review article summarizes literature reviews and resource books on faculty development. It tackled why FDP is important, history of FDP in the past years, and questioned whether FDP produced any positive effect on students' academic achievement as well as the different methods to assess FDPs effectiveness. The review also discussed how to establish FDP, presented its ideal structure, features that make FDP effective, and outlined the barriers to its successful implementation as well as the future vision. This report also highlighted the situation of FDP in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the review concluded that professional FDPs produce promising outcomes in the learning and teaching practices and recommended that teachers in higher education should attend FDP training activities on regular basis and that the scope of planned FDPs should extend beyond the health professions discipline, to include social skills necessary for collaboration, professional growth as well as management, and leadership abilities.
  17,472 1,928 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis in an Indian population
Santosh Patil, Sneha Maheshwari, Suneet Khandelwal Khandelwal
July-December 2014, 1(2):94-97
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.138474  
Background and Aim: Oral tori are bony growth present in the oral cavity and are not considered as pathological lesions. Smaller tori do not cause any problems, but larger sized tori can result in significant problems. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM) in the Indian population. Study Design: A total of 3087 patients were examined between August, 2010 and October, 2012 for the presence of TP and TM by inspection and palpation. The data were collected and analyzed using SPSS 12.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). Results: A total of 36 patients (1.3%) presented with TP, while 214 patients (6.9%) presented with TM. Tori were more frequent in males and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). TP was more common in 31-40 years age group (13 patients, 36.1%), whereas TM was more in the 41-50 years age group (81 patients, 37.9%). The most commonly observed type of TP was flat shaped, whereas bilateral solitary types were the most common TM. Conclusion: The results of this study showed a significantly higher prevalence of tori in males. No difference in the prevalence of TP and TM was noted regarding the age groups. Although, not pathologically significant, these bony overgrowths very often need surgical removal, especially when prosthesis are indicated.
  9,024 382 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Hairy intraoral flaps: An uncommon complication of surgical therapy in oral cancer
Gaurav Sharma, Archna Nagpal
July-December 2014, 1(2):123-124
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.138500  
  7,265 257 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Immediate implant in the esthetic zone: An evidence-based clinical guide
Mansour K Assery
January-June 2014, 1(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/WKMP-0056.124180  
Immediate implant placement in the esthetic zone is a topic that has recently received a lot of attention in the literature. Successful implant placement at the time of extraction in the esthetic zone is a challenge, requiring management of soft-tissue, atraumatic extraction placement of the implant and later the prosthetic stage. This article looks reviews recent literature on the topic of immediate implant placement in the esthetic zone and the clinical steps involved. The article also looks at recent evidence on patient satisfaction and discusses the merits, demerits of such a procedure and precautions to be taken by the practitioner to minimize failure.
  4,389 939 -
EDITORIAL
Dentistry in Saudi Arabia and the challenges of Vision 2030
Abdullah R AlShammery
July-December 2016, 3(2):59-60
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.188080  
  2,817 2,357 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Detection of Candida species by acridine orange fluorescent dye in exfoliative smears of oral candidiasis
Kumaraswamy LR Naik, Pushparaja Shetty, Sarosh E Shroff, Vimal Kumar Karnekar, Krishna MS Prasad, Lal P Madathil
January-June 2014, 1(1):41-46
DOI:10.4103/WKMP-0056.124188  
Background: Oral candidiasis continued to receive attention due to its evidenced association with its evidenced association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In spite of considerable improvements in the laboratory diagnostic methods, there is still a need for more reliable, definitive and less time-consuming diagnostic techniques for Candida infection. Many of the studies were done utilizing acridine orange (AO) as a basic fluorescent dye for the demonstration of yeast in cultured Candida species and in histopathological sections. However, only very few studies report this technique to demonstrate Candida organisms in oral smears. The present study was carried out to assess the diagnostic reliability of detection of Candida by utilizing AO fluorescent dye in oral exfoliative smears of oral candidiasis. Materials and Methods: A total of 62 clinically diagnosed cases of oral candidiasis were studied. Two smears and a swab were collected from each suspected lesion. Each slide was stained with, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) reagent and AO. PAS stained smears were then evaluated for the presence of Candida species under light microscopy. AO stained smears were observed under fluorescent microscopy. After inoculation of swab on the saborouds agar plates, the growth of Candida species was evaluated by Gram stain and germ tube test. Each technique was evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. Results: It was found that the PAS stained smears were more reliable for detection of Candida species (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 66.7%), than AO method (sensitivity = 87.5%; specificity = 0%). Conclusion: Acridine Orange fluorescent technique even though rapid lacks specificity for Candida.
  4,622 460 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
The nature of collagen in oral submucous fibrosis: A systematic review of the literature
VV Kamath
July-December 2014, 1(2):57-64
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.138461  
Background: The nature of collagen in the oral potentially malignant disorder of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) has always been a subject of interest to researchers studying the condition. The type, constitution, and morphology of the collagen has been studied to understand the pathogenesis of the disorder. Aim: The present review attempts to collate literature to assess the changes reported on the nature of collagen in OSF. Materials and Methods: A systematic analysis of literature based on the PRISMA protocol was carried out on studies that analyzed the nature of collagen in OSF. A total of 30 articles were found acceptable for analysis. The reported literature was categorized into histological, immuno-histochemistry (IHC), electron microscopic (EM)/scanning electron microscopic (SEM), biochemical, culture, and genetic studies. Results: Light microscopic studies revealed increased collagen with compaction and condensation as the disease advanced. Polarising microscopy revealed presence of greenish yellow (type I) thick fibers replacing the yellowish orange (type III) thin fibers in the submucosa. Fibrosis originated in the submucosa and subsequently involved the lamina propria as the disease advanced. EM/SEM investigations revealed frayed ends, degeneration of collagen cores. Increased expression of collagen antibodies and total collagen content were observed in IHC and biochemical studies, respectively. Cultured fibroblasts from OSF tend to produce more collagen in comparison to normal fibroblasts indicating a phenotypic change. Increased expression and upregulation of collagen genes were consistent in OSF cases. Conclusion: The collagen deposition in OSF is biochemically normal but quantitatively more. Fibroblast phenotypic change, upregulation of collagen genes, and selective remodeling due to decreased degradation seem to contribute to the increased fibrosis in the disorder.
  3,558 1,349 1
The management of physiological halitosis: A 20-year systematic review of the literature
Omar Hamad Alkadhi
January 2015, 2(1):3-9
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.150579  
Halitosis is a common problem. There are many assessment methods in the literature as well as treatment modalities. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the level of evidence for each treatment modality of halitosis. Electronic databases were searched in a systematic method according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. The review included human clinical trials with or without randomization and excluded case reports and case series. Only articles written in English were included in the review. Forty-three articles were included in this review. It was found that treatment modalities can be classified into chemical compounds in mouthwashes, chemical compounds in dentifrices, chemical compounds in other products, herbal products and combinations of chemical and physical methods. The level of evidence ranged from I to IV for each class. This review suggests that mouthwashes and dentifrices are the best ways to combat halitosis. There is currently insufficient amount of level I evidence to support the efficacy of herbal products or mechanical modifications to oral hygiene practices and there is a need for a greater number of randomized controlled trials to study the efficacy of these methods.
  3,477 362 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Physical and mechanical properties of pressure-molded and injection-molded denture base acrylics in different conditions
Yousef A Shibat Al Hamd, Veerendra B Dhuru
July-December 2014, 1(2):65-70
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.138463  
Background and Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the physical (processing shrinkage) and mechanical properties (bending deflection, flexure strength, and flexure modulus) of pressure-molded (Lucitone 199 and ProBase Hot) and injection-molded (SR-Ivocap) denture base materials in different conditions. Materials and Methods: Two denture base materials for pressure molding, Lucitone 199 and ProBase Hot, and one for injection molding (SR-Ivocap) were tested. Polymerization shrinkage (PS) was determined by measuring the linear distances between the reference points on the wax patterns (65 mm × 55 mm × 6 mm) and the corresponding cured acrylic plates and calculating the difference. Rectangular specimens (50 mm × 10 mm × 2.5 mm) were machined from these acrylic plates and used to measure bending deflection (BD) at various load levels, flexure strength (FS), and modulus of elasticity using a three-point bend test on an Instron Universal Testing Machine. A minimum of seven specimens were tested for each variable category. For each material, the percentage of specimens that failed within the load range of 9-10 kg was noted. Statistical analysis involved calculation of mean and standard deviations followed by group comparison of properties of different materials by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's multiple range tests. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Result: There was no significant difference between the PS values. ProBase Hot exhibited significantly less BD and greater FS values than the other two materials (P < 0.05). Within the load range of 9-10 kg., 5% of the lucitone specimens, 25% of the SR-Ivocap specimens, and all of the ProBase Hot specimens fractured. Conclusion: The three tested denture base acrylics did not show any significant differences in processing shrinkage. However, ProBase Hot showed significantly lower bending deflection values than Lucitone 199 and SR-Ivocap. Compared to Lucitone 199 and SR-Ivocap, ProBase Hot is a tougher and a stiffer material. Hence, it is more likely to fracture readily if subjected to extreme loading conditions due to the accidental fall of the denture on a hard surface or if the denture wearer inadvertently bites on a particularly hard particle.
  3,262 383 -
Influence of mother's oral health care knowledge on oral health status of their preschool child
Raghavendra M Shetty, Anushka Deoghare, Sujata Rath, Rasna Sarda, Abhishek Tamrakar
January-June 2016, 3(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.174291  
Aim: Children under 5 years of age generally spend most of their time with parents or guardians, especially mothers. Parents play a central role in giving children the information and encouragement needed for healthy lives. Parental oral health knowledge, belief and attitudes influence the oral health maintenance, dietary habits and healthy behavior of their children. The aim of this study was to assess the mothers oral health care knowledge and to assess the oral health status of their child. Materials and Methods: A total of 386 mothers along with their child of 1-6 years were randomly selected for the study. A 22-point questionnaire including parent's literacy levels, socioeconomic status, dietary practices and oral hygiene practices, was designed to assess the knowledge of the mothers regarding oral health of their child. Oral examination of the children was done by World Health Organization criteria for recording children's oral health status. Results: About 87% of the mothers agreed that intake of food with excessive sugars can cause cavities, and 95.8% admitted that chocolates cause the most decay. 80.5% agreed to the fact that leaving a milk bottle all night increases the risk for tooth decay, however, 59.3% mothers were of the opinion that dental visit is must only in the presence of decay. 59.3% mothers were unaware about the optimal fluoride content. 71.7% mothers agreed that caries in deciduous teeth are a matter of concern. The average decayed score of the children was 2.9 and 77.9% of the children had a fair to good oral hygiene status. Conclusion: Instead of the fact that most of the health care knowledge that the mothers had was primarily from the family elders, they were aware of caries risk factors, tooth brushes and amount of toothpaste and bacteria from mother's cavities can infect child. This could be observed by less number of decayed teeth and good oral hygiene status of the children. However, parents knowledge, attitudes and few beliefs regarding dental care need to be improved.
  3,052 578 -
Central giant cell granuloma of the jaws and giant cell tumor of long bones: A clinicopathological, cytometric and immunohistochemical comparative study
Manal A Al Sheddi, Hezekiah A Mosadomi, FH Al Dayel
January-June 2014, 1(1):47-53
DOI:10.4103/WKMP-0056.124190  
Aim: Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) of the jaws and giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone share a number of similarities and dissimilarities in respect of their histopathological, cytometric and immunohistochemical features. The aim of this study was to compare CGCG of the jaws and GCT of long bones from clinicopathology, cytometry and immunohistochemistry aspects. Materials and Methods: 18 CGCG and 22 GCT of bones were compared. Clinical data were obtained on the age, gender, diagnosis, clinical course, treatment and follow up. Histopatholgical features of mononuclear cell; stroma and giant cells were assessed. Computer-assisted image analysis was used to measure the mean number of giant cells, mean number of nuclei per giant cell, fractional surface area and relative size index. Expression of cell differentiation markers (vimentin, CD68, CD34, S-100P, alpha-smooth muscle actin [αSMA]) and cell cycle related markers (PCNA, P53, Ki-67, bcl-2) were evaluated. Results: CGCG of the jaw showed an early age of presentation (55.6% <25 years) and the mandible was the more common anatomical location (77.8), whereas the femur and tibia were equally affected by GCT (36.4%). GCT showed higher mean number of giant cells, higher number of nuclei per giant cell, greater fractional surface area and relative size index. Both diseases showed similar cellular phenotype in respect of Vimentin, S100 protein, CD68 and CD34. There was increased immunoreactivity of GCT to Ki-67, P53 and αSMA. Conclusion: The findings suggested that the GCT and the CGCG may be variants of the same disease entity with age and site-specific features.
  3,126 318 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
A systematic review of therapeutic modalities used in sleep bruxism
May Wathiq Al-Khudhairy
July-December 2015, 2(2):55-62
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.160757  
Aim: Sleep bruxism (SB) has been present for over a century. There are many treatment modalities in the literature. The objective of this systematic review of randomized controlled clinical therapeutic trials of SB in adults diagnosed by clinical and/or electromyogram and/or polysomnography of SB is to elucidate the most effective of treatment modalities via documentation of the levels of evidence. Materials and Method: This review conducted electronically on PubMed included only English Full text human clinical trials with or without randomization. Twenty-one articles were included in this review. The therapeutic modalities of SB were classified into behavioral therapy, appliance therapy, local pharmacotherapy, and systemic pharmacotherapy. Each article was further allotted a level of evidence. Results: This review suggests that Oral appliances expressed the most positive outcome on SB episodes per hour of sleep. Conclusion: There is still not sufficient evidence to support behavioral and pharmaco-therapeutic approach
  2,399 1,005 -
EDITORIAL
Addressing the challenges of oral health in the 21 st century through research
Hezekiah A Mosadomi
July-December 2014, 1(2):55-56
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.138457  
  1,310 2,029 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative study of marginal adaptation and mechanical properties of CAD/CAM versus dual polymerized interim fixed dental prosthesis
Marwa Eltayeb I Elagra, Yousria Shalaby, Moustafa Fakhry Khalil, Nagiub ElFawal
July-December 2014, 1(2):71-78
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.138467  
Background: With the advent of new interim crown materials, it has become imperative to evaluate its strength in order to select the appropriate interim crown and partial fixed dental prosthesis material. Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare marginal adaptation, wear resistance, and fracture resistance of a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) versus a dual polymerized interim fixed dental prosthesis (FDP). Materials and Methods: Twenty models were randomly allocated into two equal groups (I and II). Group (I) received 10 CAD/CAM fabricated interim FDP (CAD-Temp) and Group (II) received 10 directly fabricated interim FDP using a dual polymerized material (TempSpan). All specimens were stored before testing. Marginal adaptation was tested using stereomicroscope and image analyzing software to measure the amount of marginal gap. For wear resistance test, all specimens were subjected to mechanical tooth brushing. Stereomicroscope and image analyzing software were used to measure the difference in height before and after tooth brushing. Specimens were subjected to cyclic loading; specimens intact from defects were then loaded to fracture. Data were analyzed using Student's T- test, Mann Whitney test and Fisher exact test (α = 0.05). Results: CAD-Temp (15.026 ± 4.340 μm) showed significantly higher marginal adaptation than TempSpan (145.418 ± 25.365μm)(P < 0.001). The wear resistance of CAD-Temp (7.3322 ± 0.99853 μm) was significantly higher than TempSpan (22.3165 ± 2.35459 μm) (P < 0.001). The fracture resistance of CAD-Temp (605.1 ± 31.718N) was also significantly higher than that of TempSpan (225.76 ± 32.469N) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: CAD/CAM fabricated interim restorations have better marginal adaptation, wear resistance and fracture resistance than dual polymerized interim restorations hence, might withstand longer duration in the oral cavity.
  2,917 406 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Formulation of guidelines to resolve medical emergencies in dental practice: An overview
Farouk M Sakr, Kais G Al-Obaidy, Lokesh J Shetty, Fathy A Behery, Mansour K Assery, Abdel Nasser I Adam, Mohamed J Patel
January-June 2016, 3(1):3-11
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.174289  
Dentists are prone to face unpredictable medical emergency crises in their patients during dental practice. These seldom but usually occurring events require diagnosis for safe and effective management. Therefore, dental care professionals are required to be equipped with information and training on how to manage medical emergencies (MEs) including drug administration. An outline of what essential basic life support equipment and medications require in dental clinics to manage MEs are provided with recommendation for training to handle those medical events. Effective and safe dental practice require to providing graduate and undergraduate dentistry students with updated information and training on medical emergencies and how to handle different equipment and drugs associated with such events.
  2,802 473 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Factors influencing Saudi dental students' preference of amalgam or composite for posterior dental restorations
Sharat Chandra Pani, Mohammad Fawaz Al Abbassi, Abdulrahman Daham Al Saffan, Maged Abdulrahman Al Sumait, Ahmed Nassir Shakir
January-June 2014, 1(1):30-36
DOI:10.4103/WKMP-0056.124183  
Aim: The aim of this study was to tabulate the factors effecting Saudi dental students' selection of a posterior restorative dental material and compare those factors between a private and a government dental school in Riyadh. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of 267 students studying in both the private dental college (67 males, 75 females) and the government dental college (55 males, 70 females) in their last 3 years of clinical training. The students were administered a structured questionnaire specifically designed for the purpose after obtaining informed consent. Responses were compared between the students of each school using the chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test. Each student's responses to amalgam and composite were measured using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Overall composite resin was the material preferred by a majority of the students regardless of the type of school. Students in both the private and the government college were likely to give higher scores for composite than amalgam. A majority of students in both schools felt that amalgam could not be completely replaced with composite. When asked to list the main drawbacks of amalgam and composite most of the respondents answered lack of esthetics for amalgam, while they listed micro-leakage as the greatest drawback of composites. Conclusion: The findings of our study suggest that dental students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia seem to possess the ability to work confidently with posterior composite resins and seem to be comfortable in doing so; however, there is a significant difference in the factors influencing their choice of material.
  2,897 357 -
CASE REPORTS
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of parotid gland: A case report
Jeetendra Purohit, Vela D Desai, Rajeev Sharma, Amit K Sharma
July-December 2015, 2(2):106-109
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.160781  
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the major salivary glands, accounting for 15.5% of all cases, benign and malignant. The aim of this article is to report a case of MEC in a 73-years-old male patient who presented with a painless firm fluctuant swelling in left preauricular area. The lesion was thoroughly examined preoperatively, and investigations were carried out. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was done for the lesion and report suggested tumor of the parotid gland. Superficial parotidectomy procedure was done, taking care not to injure the lower division of the facial nerve. Post recovery was uneventful with no defect of facial nerve functions. The histologic picture confirmed that the tumor was MEC of parotid gland. Through the literature reviews of MEC the discussions on prevalence, origin, diagnosis, histological finding, investigation and the modes of treatment are made.
  2,906 301 -
EDITORIAL
Education in the era of digitalization: The role of the dental school in the promotion of digital dentistry
Abdullah R AlShammery
July-December 2015, 2(2):53-54
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.160755  
  1,194 1,897 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Oral health attitudes and behavior among a group of female Saudi dental students
Mohammad Abdul Baseer, Ghousia Rahman
January-June 2014, 1(1):25-29
DOI:10.4103/WKMP-0056.124182  
Aim: Aim of the present study was to evaluate the oral health attitudes and behavior of female undergraduate dental students in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, according to age and level of dental education. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire based on the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavior Inventory (HU-DBI) was distributed among 351 dental students at Riyadh colleges of dentistry and pharmacy. Results: A response rate of 88% was obtained. The mean HU-DBI score did not show any significant relationship (P < 0.05) with age and academic level dental education by one way-analysis of variance (ANOVA). The students were considerably concerned about the appearance of their teeth and gums and halitosis. The total mean score was not markedly higher in the clinical levels (level 7 to level 12) than in the non-clinical levels (level 1 to level 6), indicating that the students were almost equally aware. The present study showed that dental students in Saudi Arabia had poor oral health awareness. Conclusion: The oral health behavior of Saudi dental students needs to be improved in order to serve as a positive model for their patients and the community.
  2,693 335 -
The effect of different types of oral mouth rinses on the hardness of Silorane-based and Nano-hybrid composites
Rohit Ashok Antony Fernandez, Marwan El Araby, Mohamed Siblini, Ayed Al-Shehri
July-December 2014, 1(2):105-109
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.138481  
Background: The restorative materials used in dentistry are required to have long-term durability in the oral cavity. Effect of various fluids in the oral environment can affect the hardness of these restorations. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different mouth rinses on the hardness of Silorane and Nano-hybrid resin composites. Materials and Methods: Thirty specimens were prepared from each type of composite and stored in artificial saliva for 24 h at 37°C. They were then divided into six experimental groups based on the test solution and were immersed and stored for 24 h at 37°C. Thereafter, the specimens were washed, dried and the hardness was measured for each specimen by Vickers microhardness tester. Results: Nano-hybrid resin composite showed higher Vickers hardness number (VHN) than Silorane composite in any test solution. There was only a mildly significant difference in the mean VHN of Silorane composite immersed in alcohol-containing mouthwash compared with artificial saliva. However, there was a significant difference in the mean VHN of Nano-hybrid composite when immersed in different mouthwashes. Conclusion: The microhardness values of Silorane-based and Nano-hybrid resin composites were decreased after immersion in the mouthwashes. The hardness of Nano-hybrid composite immersed in artificial saliva showed the highest VHN and was significantly affected when immersed in other test solutions. Silorane-based composite is more resistant to alcohol-containing mouthwash than Nano-hybrid composite.
  2,640 327 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
The "True Triangle" in cleft lip repair: A novel technique
Abdullah I Al Atel
July-December 2014, 1(2):114-116
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.138487  
The aim of this short communication is to describe the True Triangle (TT) technique for the repair of unilateral cleft lip (CL). A total of 309 patients were operated using the TT technique. The final cleft lip repair results showed positive outcomes. Conclusion: This technique may overcome some of the drawbacks of the previously described surgical techniques used for CL repair.
  2,645 297 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Fractographic analysis of ProTaper and Mtwo systems: Breakage and distortion in severely curved roots of molars
Fatima Betul Basturk, Mohammad Hossein Nekoofar, Hesna Sazak Ovecoglu, Yildiz Garip Berker, Mahir Gunday, Harold H Messer, Paul MH Dummer
January-June 2014, 1(1):19-24
DOI:10.4103/WKMP-0056.124181  
Aim: This study evaluated the distortion and fracture mode of ProTaper and Mtwo rotary instruments following their use in severely curved root canals in extracted human teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 mesial canals of mandibular molars were allocated into two groups that were balanced in terms of angle and radius of curvature. Canals were prepared by either ProTaper or Mtwo systems. Each set of instruments was changed after the third canal. Longitudinal and fractographic examinations of the instruments were carried out by scanning electron microscopy. Images were evaluated according to distortion and mode of fracture. Chi-square analysis and Fisher's exact test were carried out at a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: No significant difference was found between fracture and distortion percentage of ProTaper and Mtwo rotary instruments (P > 0.05). Fractographic analysis revealed that all of the Mtwo instruments demonstrated torsional failure and all but one of the ProTaper instruments (S1) showed torsional failure. Conclusion: Fractographic examination of the fractured surface revealed shear fracture was the predominant mode of failure. Root canal curvature was an essential parameter influencing the susceptibility of instruments to fracture.
  2,586 292 -
Assessment of iatrogenic damage to proximal surfaces of adjacent teeth following crown preparation by final year dental students in Saudi Arabia
Bander Abdulwahhab, Maram AlHati, Maha AlEnzi, Safia Babidan
January-June 2014, 1(1):37-40
DOI:10.4103/WKMP-0056.124186  
Aim: The purpose of the following study is to measure the amount and frequency of iatrogenic damage to inter-proximal surfaces of adjacent teeth, following crown preparation, among undergraduate dental students in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy. Materials and Methods: Teeth surfaces were examined on master casts, using ×2.5 magnifying loupes. The damage depth of the injured teeth was measured, with - a modified digital micrometer caliper (Whitworth's 6 inch Digital Caliper). To ensure that examined teeth surfaces were intact pre-operatively, they were confirmed with pretreatment radiographs. Results: A sample of 180 teeth surfaces chosen randomly was examined of which only 111 samples done by undergraduate students with intact teeth surfaces were included. The 69 excluded samples either had carious or restored teeth surfaces or were done by practitioners other than dental students. Over Nearly 98% of examined teeth surfaces, adjacent to crown prepared teeth, were proximally injured. Through using specific measuring parameters, the most frequent type of damage was abrasion (58.7%). The most commonly damaged area found was the middle-third of the proximal surface. The damage extended to more than 50% of the proximal surface, in 63% of the total sample. The depth of the injury was more than 0.1 mm in 58% of the total sample. Damage was more frequent in maxillary teeth (60.4%), than mandibular teeth (39.6%). Conclusion: Conventional crown preparation methods appear to result in significant damage to adjacent teeth surfaces; increasing caries risk potential, thermal sensitivity and periodontal disease. Therefore, protection of these surfaces and selection of the most appropriate instruments and preparation techniques are important.
  2,557 284 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
A novel technique to check the occlusion during the placement of stainless steel crowns under general anesthesia
Mohiddin Dimashkieh, Sharat Chandra Pani
January 2015, 2(1):49-51
DOI:10.4103/1658-6816.150599  
Stainless steel crowns are the restoration of choice for the treatment of badly decayed posterior teeth under general anesthesia. The evaluation of occlusion after the placement of these crowns, however, remains a difficult task. This paper outlines a technique to evaluate the occlusion of stainless steel crowns placed under general anesthesia using a specially designed tray and a fast setting polyvinyl siloxane bite registration material (Regisil® PB™, Dentsply, Surrey UK).
  2,408 339 -
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