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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 77-80

Incidence of attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder among school children in Riyadh city and its association with body burden of mercury leached from dental amalgam fillings: A cross-sectional study

1 Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Microbiology, Abyat Medical Center 2, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Psychology, University Medical Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Fatmah Nasser Almotawah
Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh 5321
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sjos.SJOralSci_20_19

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Objectives: The objectives of this study are to determine the association between the incidence of attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children of mothers with and without amalgam fillings. Design: The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: The study was conducted at a dental college's clinic in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Participants: In total, 869 children (512 males and 357 females) aged 6–12 years and 796 mothers were included. Children suffering from hearing impairment, language impairment, or learning disabilities or those diagnosed with mental health problems were excluded from the study. Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measures included the results of the Vanderbilt scale used for ADHD diagnosis in children and the mercury concentration in 1 ml saliva samples obtained from both the mother and the children. The secondary outcome measures included the number of dental amalgam restorations in the oral cavity determined through a dental examination of children and their mothers. Methodology: A consent form was signed by the mothers who agreed to participate in our study, they were all examined for amalgam presence and a saliva samples were collected and digested. Results: Children with ADHD showed significantly higher levels of mercury in saliva than did children without ADHD. The mothers who had dental amalgam fillings during pregnancy had significantly higher mercury levels than did the mothers who did not have dental amalgam fillings. Conclusion: Prenatal mercury exposure is associated with a higher risk of ADHD behavior. Further research can be carried out to identify the toxic effects of mercury on different body organs owing to dental amalgam fillings. The study scale can be further increased to obtain a more accurate percentage of ADHD cases in Saudi Arabia.

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